AI Models

What are AI models?

AI models or artificial intelligence models are programs that detect specific patterns using a collection of data sets. It is an illustration of a system that can receive data inputs and draw conclusions or conduct actions depending on those conclusions. Once trained, an AI model can be used to make future predictions or act on data that was not previously observed. AI models can be used for a variety of activities, from image and video recognition to natural language processing (NLP), anomaly detection, recommender systems, predictive modeling and forecasting, and robotics and control systems.

What are ML or DL models?

ML (Machine Learning) and DL (Deep Learning) models describe the use of complex algorithms and techniques to process and analyze data to produce predictions or decisions in real-time.

ML models: ML models employ learning algorithms that draw conclusions or predictions from past data. This comprises methods like decision trees, random forests, gradient boosting, and linear and logistic regression. HPE offers a variety of machine learning (ML) tools and technologies that may be used to build and use ML models widely.

Deep learning (DL) models: A subset of machine learning (ML) models that uses deep neural networks to learn from a lot of data. DL models are frequently used for image and audio recognition, natural language processing, and predictive analytics since they are built to handle complicated and unstructured data. TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Caffe are just a few of the deep learning (DL) tools and technologies that are offered by HPE that can be used to create and use DL models.

Both ML and DL models are utilized to address a variety of business issues, including fraud detection, customer churn analysis, predictive maintenance, and recommendation systems. Organizations can use these models to acquire fresh perspectives of their data.

Related HPE Solutions, Products, or Services

Differences between AI, ML, and DL

AI (Artificial Intelligence)

  • AI covers a wide range of tools and methods that replicate human intelligence in machines.
  • Artificial intelligence can be applied to a wide range of data types, including structured, unstructured, and semi-structured data.
  • Given that they can use a variety of different methodologies and algorithms, AI systems can be challenging to understand and comprehend.
  • As AI systems sometimes entail more sophisticated algorithms and processing, they can be slower and less effective than ML and DL systems.
  • AI can be applied to a wide range of applications, including natural language processing, computer vision, robotics, and decision-making systems.
  • AI systems can be fully autonomous or require some level of human intervention.
  • It requires a large team of professionals to create and manage AI systems as they can be quite complicated.
  • Given that they frequently include complicated algorithms and Given that they frequently include complicated algorithms and processing, AI systems can be challenging to scale.
  • As AI systems frequently use fixed methods and processing, they might be less flexible than ML and DL systems.
  • The need for substantial volumes of data to train properly is one drawback of AI, ML, and DL.

ML (Machine Learning)

  • Machine learning is a subset of AI that includes teaching machines to learn from data and make predictions or judgments based on that data. For applications like image identification, natural language processing, and anomaly detection, ML techniques can be employed.
  • For ML to learn from and make predictions or judgments, it needs labeled training data.
  • As ML models rely on statistical models and algorithms, they can be easier to comprehend.
  • Due to their reliance on statistical models and algorithms, ML systems have the potential to be quicker and more effective than AI systems.
  • Many of the same applications as AI may be used for ML, but with a focus on data-driven learning.
  • ML systems are created to automatically learn from data with little assistance from humans.
  • ML systems can be less complex than AI systems since they rely on statistical models and algorithms.
  • As ML systems rely on statistical models and algorithms that can be taught on big datasets, they can be more scalable than AI systems.
  • As ML systems can learn from fresh data and modify their predictions or choices, they may be more flexible and adaptable than AI systems.
  • The quality of the data can also have an impact on the accuracy and robustness of the ML model and collecting and labeling data can be time-consuming and expensive.

DL (Deep Learning)

  • DL is a specialized subset of ML that mimics how the human brain functions using artificial neural networks. Image and speech recognition are two examples of complex subjects that DL is exceptionally effective at solving.
  • To efficiently train deep neural networks, DL requires vast volumes of labeled data.
  • DL models are sometimes regarded as "black boxes" because they include several layers of neurons that might be difficult to read and comprehend.
  • As deep neural networks are trained using specialized hardware and parallel computing, DL systems have the potential to be the fastest and most effective out of the three methods.
  • DL is particularly well-suited for applications requiring complex pattern recognition, such as image and audio recognition, as well as natural language processing.
  • Some human interaction is required in DL systems, such as determining the design and hyperparameters of the neural network.
  • DL systems can be the most complex since they involve many layers of neurons and require specialized hardware and software to train deep neural networks.
  • DL systems can be the most scalable since they use specialized hardware and parallel processing to train deep neural networks.
  • Because of its capacity to learn from vast volumes of data and adjust to new circumstances and tasks, DL systems have the potential to be the most adaptive.
  • Deep neural network training in DL can be computationally complex and need specialized gear and software, which can be costly and restrict the technology's accessibility.

How do AI models work?

AI models operate by receiving large data inputs and by generating technical approaches to discover, trends and patterns that are pre-existing in the data set provided to the program. Since the model is developed on a program that runs on large data sets, it helps the algorithms to find and understand the correlation in patterns and trends that can be used to forecast or formulate strategies based on previously unknown data inputs. The intelligent and logical way of decision-making that mimics the inputs of the available data is called AI modeling.

Simply described, AI modeling is the development of a decision-making process that consists of three fundamental steps:

  • Modeling: The first stage is to develop an artificial intelligence model, which employs a complicated algorithm or layers of algorithms to analyze data and make judgments based on that data. A good AI model can serve as a stand-in for human expertise.
  • AI model training: The AI model must be trained in the second stage. Training often entails running huge quantities of data through the AI model in recurrent test loops and inspecting the results to confirm the accuracy and that the model is performing as anticipated and required. To understand this method we must also understand the difference between supervised and unsupervised learning;
        1. Supervised learning refers to classified data sets that are labeled into correct output, meaning the data provided have pre-existing relations between input data, the model then makes use of this labeled data to discover the connections and trends between the input data and the desired output.
        2. Unsupervised learning is a sort of machine learning in which the model is not given access to labeled data. Instead, the model must independently identify the connections and trends in the data.
  • Inference: Inference is the third step. This stage involves deploying the AI model into its actual use case in real-life scenarios, where it regularly draws logical inferences from the information at hand.

After being trained, an AI model can be utilized to make forecasts or perform actions based on fresh, unforeseen data inputs. In essence AI models operate by processing input data, mining it using algorithms and statistical techniques to uncover patterns and correlations, and then using what they have discovered to anticipate or act upon subsequent data inputs.

How do you scale AI/ML models across GPU, compute, people, and data?

Scaling AI/ML models across GPU, compute, people, and data requires a combination of technology, infrastructure, and expertise.

GPU and Compute: High-performance computing solutions, including GPU-accelerated computing platforms and cloud-based services can be leveraged to scale AI/ML models. These solutions enable organizations to run complex and demanding AI/ML algorithms efficiently, without sacrificing performance.

  • People: The scaling process for AI and ML depends heavily on people. To design, develop, and implement AI/ML models at scale, organizations need to assemble a team of highly qualified AI/ML specialists. Additionally, it's critical to grasp the organization’s AI/ML priorities and goals, as well as the abilities and resources needed to carry them out.
  • Data: Organizations need to have a well-designed data architecture to support the scalability of AI/ML models because data is the lifeblood of these models. To do this, businesses need a solid data management strategy that enables them to store, handle, and analyze massive volumes of data in real-time. Organizations must also make sure that their data is reliable, accurate, and secure.

By leveraging these capabilities, organizations can drive the growth and success of their AI/ML initiatives and stay ahead of the competition in the digital age.

How do you build and train AI models?

  • To build and train AI models, we first need to define the purpose and choose the model's objectives. The remaining steps will be guided by the purpose a model is meant to serve.
  • Work with a subject-matter expert to assess the data's quality. With a thorough grasp of the data gathered, the data inputs must be accurate and devoid of errors. This information is going to be utilized to train the model. These data should be accurate and consistent, and they need to be pertinent to the purpose the AI is meant to serve.
  • Select the ideal AI algorithm or model design like Decision trees, support vector machines, and other popular techniques that are used to train AI models.
  • Utilize the cleaned and prepared data to train the model. This usually entails putting the input into the selected algorithm and employing a technique called backpropagation to tweak the model's settings and boost efficiency.
  • Check the correctness of the trained model and make any required corrections. This can entail putting the model to the test on a different set of data and assessing how well it predicts actual results.
  • Once the model is performing to the appropriate degree of accuracy, fine-tune it and repeat the training procedure. This may entail modifying the model's hyperparameters, such as the learning rate, or employing techniques such as regularization to prevent overfitting.
  • In general, creating and training an AI model involves a mix of expertise in the relevant field, familiarity with machine learning algorithms and techniques, and an intention to experiment and repeat to enhance the model's performance.

What is data bias in AI models?

The likelihood of systematic and unfair bias in the data used to train AI models is referred to as data bias in AI models. If the data used to train the model contains biased inputs or is not representative of the sample or audience to whom it will be applied, the predictions may become inaccurate or unjust. As a result, the model can treat certain persons unfavorably and discriminatorily. To eliminate data bias, it is vital to have a broad and representative dataset while training AI models and for the ability of the AI model to share learnings from different data sets to reduce bias and increase the accuracy of the model.

How to maintain data privacy in AI/ML models

In AI/ML models, maintaining data privacy is a crucial concern, and there are a variety of technologies and best practices to make sure of that.

Data encryption: Encrypting data is a fundamental step in ensuring data privacy in AI/ML models. To safeguard sensitive data from unwanted access, businesses need encryption solutions for data both in transit and at rest.

Data anonymization: The practice of eliminating personally identifiable information (PII) from data sets is known as data anonymization. Businesses need solutions that protect customer information while still giving AI/ML models access to the information they require to work.

Access control: Businesses need access control solutions that enable enterprises to regulate accessibility to sensitive data, ensuring that only authorized people may access it.

Compliance: Keeping data private in AI/ML models requires careful consideration of compliance. Businesses need products that follow compliance best practices to ensure that businesses adhere to data privacy laws like the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA).

Auditing and logging solutions let businesses keep track of who has access to sensitive data, ensuring that any potential breaches are swiftly found and fixed.

Organizations can safeguard the security of sensitive data and keep the confidence of their customers and stakeholders by leveraging data privacy compliant solutions and best practices.

How to increase accuracy in AI/ML models?

Increasing accuracy in AI/ML models is a critical concern, and there are several strategies and best practices that can be used to achieve this goal.

Data Quality: Data quality is a critical factor in the accuracy of AI/ML models. Solutions for data quality management can ensure that data sets are complete, accurate, and consistent. This allows AI/ML models to learn from high-quality data and make more accurate predictions. Data quality management includes:

  • Data cleansing: the process of removing inconsistencies, duplicates, and errors from data sets.
  • Data standardization: the process of converting data into a common format.
  • Data enrichment: the process of adding additional data to a data set.
  • Data validation: the process of checking data for accuracy and completeness.
  • Data governance: the process of managing data quality, security, and privacy.

Engineering features: Engineering features are the process of turning raw data into features that AI/ML models can employ. Data visualization, feature selection, dimensionality reduction, feature scaling, and feature extraction are all effective feature engineering approaches that may dramatically increase model accuracy.

Model selection: Choosing the best AI/ML model for a specific task is essential for improving accuracy. There are several models to pick from, such as decision trees, logistic regression, linear regression, and deep learning models. It is crucial to pick a model with a high accuracy rate that is suitable for the issue at hand.

Hyperparameter tuning: Hyperparameters are settings made before an AI/ML model's training. The accuracy of the model can be significantly impacted by the selection of hyperparameters. Organizations can automatically tune hyperparameters using HPE's hyperparameter tuning solutions, improving model accuracy.

Model validation: Model regularization is the process of decreasing overfitting in AI/ML models. Overfitting is a condition when a model performs poorly on fresh data because it is too complicated and fits the training data too well. L1 and L2 regularization are two model regularization methods that can aid in reducing overfitting and enhancing model accuracy. Organizations can evaluate the correctness of their models and spot any possible problems with the help of tools and best practices for model validation.

How do you deploy AI models?

There are many ways to deploy AI models, and the specific approach will depend on the type of model you are working with and the goals you want to achieve. Some common strategies for deploying AI models include:

  • Hosting the model on a dedicated server or cloud platform, where it can be accessed via an API or other interface. This approach is often used when the model needs to be available for real-time predictions or inferences.
  • Embedding the model directly into a device or application, which allows it to make predictions or inferences on local data without the need for a network connection. This is a common approach for deploying models on edge devices or in applications where low latency is important.
  • Packaging the model into a container, such as a Docker container, allows it to be easily deployed and run in a variety of environments. This approach can be useful for deploying models in a consistent and reproducible way.

Regardless of the method, it is crucial to thoroughly test and verify the model before deploying it to make sure it is operating as intended.

HPE and AI Models

HPE understands artificial intelligence (AI) technology. With a proven, practical strategy, verified solutions and partners, AI-optimized infrastructures, and ML Ops solutions, organizations can decrease complexity and realize the value of data quicker, giving them a competitive advantage.

  • The HPE Machine Learning Development System is a turnkey system that combines high-performance computers, accelerators, and model training and development software in an optimized AI infrastructure. It is supported by professional installation and support services. It is a scaled-up AI turnkey solution for model development.
  • HPE Swarm Learning is a decentralized, privacy-preserving framework for performing machine learning model training at the data source. HPE Swarm Learning addresses issues about data privacy, data ownership, and efficiency by keeping the data local and just sharing the learnings, which leads to superior models with less bias. An applied blockchain is also used by HPE Swarm Learning to securely enroll members and elect the leader in a decentralized manner, giving the swarm network resiliency and security.
  • Determined AI, an open-source machine learning training platform that HPE purchased in June 2021, serves as the basis for the HPE Machine Learning Development Environment. To execute, scale and share experiments with ease, model creators may begin training their models on the open-source version of Determined AI.
  • The HPE GreenLake platform offers an enterprise-grade ML cloud service that enables developers and data scientists to quickly design, train, and deploy ML models—from pilot to production, at any scale—to bring the benefits of ML and data science to your organization.
  • HPE Ezmeral ML Ops gives enterprises DevOps-like speed and agility at every stage of the ML lifecycle by standardizing procedures and offering pre-packaged tools to design, train, deploy, and monitor machine learning workflows.
  • HPE SmartSIM can help to identify plagiarism in written content, the software application SmartSim employs machine learning and natural language processing. It is intended to evaluate text and find similarities between it and other information that is already published online or in a browser database. The program can be used to verify the authenticity of academic papers, research papers, and other written materials. It serves as a tool to avoid plagiarism and provide original material.

These features help in the following parameters;

  • Pre-configured, fully installed, and performant out of the box
  • Seamless scalability - distributed training, hyperparameter optimization
  • Manageability and observability
  • Trusted vendor and enterprise-level support and services
  • Flexible and heterogenous architecture
  • Component architecture
  • Software and hardware support
  • Service and support